final days of the Roman Empire in Britannia, modern day Great Britain,
were played out sometime in the early fifth century. The exact date is
disputed in academic circles, but let’s go with the
commonly accepted date of AD 410. The farewell was a seismic event for the
people of the province. It is hard today for us to truly imagine the
terrifying impact it must have had on those living in such uncertain times.
Since the original conquest by Rome in AD 43, many of the native people had become increasingly Romanized. This was especially so in the more populated urban areas and in the south-east. London for example was a wealthy trading port, a cosmopolitan place of many thousands of people from all over the Roman Empire with impressive civic buildings and public amenities.
not to say the original language and culture of pre-Roman Britain
disappeared, traditional Round Houses were still being constructed in
the countryside during the Roman period, and the Britons still spoke
their native tongue. The use of Latin however, especially ‘Dog
Latin,’ was widespread and a necessity for commerce and trade. Money
talks, and in those days it spoke Latin.
Britons became Romano-Britons.
Britons became Romano-Britons.
had also been used in pre-Roman Britain, particularly in the south east
corner of the country which was closest to the influence of Roman Gaul.
There is speculation in some academic circles that the northern Gaulish
tribes spoke a Germanic language, not Gaulish (one of the Celtic
tongues) as was spoken further south. It is further ventured that the
inhabitants of what is now south-east England spoke the same Germanic
tongue and were closely related to their cousins across the water.
Tribal names with a presence in both locations would strongly suggest a
link, the Belgae being but one example.
ruling native elites in the south were thoroughly Romanized, and many were living a
Roman lifestyle before the mid first century AD. This would not be unusual
given the cultural links projected above and the exposure to the
pleasures and comforts Rome could provide. They enjoyed the fruits of
the Empire, including its civilization, technologies and remarkable
innovations. Sadly, this was very much a slave owning society though,
and there were sharp divides in terms of social status between various
sections of the population, as there still are in the modern world.
beginning of the end
centuries Roman Britain prospered, despite economic wobbles and civil
war in the late third century, the exact time when the great coastal
forts known as the ‘Saxon Shore Forts’, such as those at Pevensey
and Portchester, were constructed. There is some dispute as to whether
these impressive and imposing edifices were built as fortified
distribution and trading centres, or as purely defensive structures.
Most likely the truth is somewhere in the middle, with usage changing as threats ebbed and flowed. I would highly recommend anybody
to visit Portchester Roman Fort, the best preserved of them all. It is
more than likely the forts would also provide secure bases for what was
left of the Roman navy, the Classis Britannica, operating against
pirates and raiders. At the time, the North Sea was described as being
‘infested by Franks and Saxons’.
change began to occur from around AD 350, as the barbarian incursions in
mainland Europe cut off trade with Britain, and internal strife within
the empire weakened its defenses. The everyday imports and luxury goods
stopped coming, exports withered and local mass production ceased as
demand went into free-fall. An economy that had been so vibrant prior to
AD 350 gradually imploded and collapsed. This in turn killed off most of
cities, as the reason for their very existence disappeared. They were abandoned, especially those in the east of the country which
Europe and were more vulnerable to attack by raiders from the continent.
They were left to gradual ruinous decay as people retreated to the countryside.
There were of course exceptions, Carlisle for example was continuously
populated and even in the 7th century, had a fully
functioning Roman water supply and strong, intact defensive walls.
The rot really began to set in with the elevation of Flavius Magnus Magnentius to the Purple in AD 351. The army had grown dissatisfied with the emperor Constans and in a coup d'état, replaced him with Magnentius. Constans was slain shortly after his replacement by a troop of light cavalry near the Pyrenees. Being a Roman emperor could be a very brutal and short-lived experience, particularly during the latter days of the empire in the West when the ancient glory of empire was in steep decline.
denuded Britannia of much of its military force in order to fight his
cause in Europe, and cement his position as emperor. He personally led
his troops at the Battle of Mursa Major in AD 351 but was defeated. Over
the next couple of years he rallied his forces, and made a final stand
at the Battle of Mons Seleucus in AD 353. He once again suffered a
defeat. Knowing the game was up and his cause lost, he committed suicide
by falling on his sword. Interestingly, Magnentius is said to have had a
British father and a Frankish mother, which certainly rooted him to
367 the army posted along Hadrian’s Wall rebelled and allowed the
Picts to flow south into Britannia. Simultaneously, Attacotti, the
Scotti from Hibernia, and the Saxons from Germania, landed in
coordinated and pre-arranged waves on the island's mid-western and
south-eastern borders respectively. It was a barbarian conspiracy to
seek wealth and plunder in the province.
invaders roamed the countryside in various war bands, killing, raping
and pillaging settlements and villa estates. It was a truly desperate time for
Britannia. Nectaridus, the Count of the Saxon Shore, was killed and the
Dux Britanniarum, Fullofaudes, was according to the records either
besieged or captured. Deserting
soldiers and escaped slaves roamed the countryside unchallenged by
authority and turned to robbery in order to survive. The province was in
chaos as the barbarian hordes sought personal enrichment, and the
remaining loyal army units were holed-up in the towns of the south east.
response to this appalling situation was initially weak and confused
until in AD 368, Count Theodosius arrived in Britannia from Gaul with a
strong army in order to drive out the invaders, and put the province
firmly under the control of Rome once again. Army deserters were offered
an amnesty and that aided his cause greatly and allowed him to once
again seize control of Hadrian’s Wall. By the end of AD 368 Theodosius
had utterly defeated the invaders and had driven them out. Rome then
extracted its revenge. Mutineers were executed and a new administration ruthlessly installed. The barbarian invasion had further weakened
the economy of Britannia and had sown the seeds of a total collapse later.
empire in chaos
Terrible damage, some would say terminal damage, was again done to the province in AD 383, when an ambitious and distinguished general by the name of Magnus Maximus attempted to usurp the Purple from the Emperor Theodosius I, and seize the imperial throne. He once again took an army from Britain, denuding its military presence, and crossed the channel into Gaul. He was defeated in his self-serving endeavour by the emperor and executed. The Roman emperor then sent a force to Britain with a remit to root out the supporters of the usurper Magnus Maximus.
Civil war was not what the Empire needed in the late fourth century, as it was being pressured by various barbarian on its borders, and neither did the vulnerable province of Britannia. It could ill afford to have an army squandered on the battlefield for the sake of one man’s lofty pretensions to the Purple. This was a time when the province was once again being probed and attacked by Scots, Picts and Saxons. It was a timely warning of things to come.
Around 396 there were increasing barbarian incursions into Britain, and an expedition — possibly led by Stilicho — brought naval action against the raiders. It seems peace was restored by 399, although it is likely that no further garrisoning was ordered; and indeed by 401 more troops were withdrawn to assist in the war against Alaric I.
collapse of the economy also witnessed the beginning of the end for the
great rural villa estates. Academia is not agreed upon exactly what
caused their collapse, there are various opinions, apart from the
obvious and sweeping state of the economy and barbarian raids, and they
certainly did not disappear overnight. Some struggled on into the fifth
century but most had long gone by then. It may well have been that a
villa estate required a small army of slaves and servants to keep it
running, and these may have gradually disappeared. As Roman
administration began to falter and shudder to a halt in the late fourth
century, taxes went uncollected and the army went unpaid. The collapsing
economy meant that markets for surpluses disappeared and the province
swung back to self-sufficiency.
large villa buildings required constant maintenance, just as large
properties do today, and such work is expensive. With much reduced
incomes and a lack of skilled craftsmen to undertake the work, the
structures began to crumble. Even in fairly recent times, some
aristocrats who could no longer support their money-pit country piles
demolished them, or simply moved out and left them to rot. This quite
possibly also happened to many of the grand Roman villas, which simply become
almost impossible for us to fully grasp all this today from our
comfortable existence in the modern world.
We simply have no concept of such awful shattering change and the
effects emanating from it. Imagine the population of modern London
suddenly abandoning the city, leaving it to rot, and heading for the
countryside as society all around you falls apart and law and order
collapse; when all that you knew has gone forever. The wars, recessions
and depressions we have experienced over the past one hundred years are
nothing, compared to what happened in Britain during the twilight of
Roman rule in the British Isles.
of the light
The economy of Roman Britain did revive to a degree after AD 383, but production and trade was undertaken in small towns at a much more local level. This town life in turn mostly came to an end as the pressure from the Picts of the north, the Gaels from Ireland and Saxons from the mainland stretched the province to breaking point. By the beginning of the fifth century, even the small towns were failing and being left behind. Britain from that point had mostly ceased to be urban. The light of civilization that had flickered in the towns died, and along with it died the knowledge to build in stone, make roads and to manufacture concrete. Literacy also died, only being preserved in the Christian areas of the Roman-British west of Britannia, where urban life was able to cling on the longest.
By 407 there were no new Roman coins going into circulation, and by 430 it is likely that coinage as a medium of exchange had been abandoned. Pottery mass production probably ended a decade or two previously; the rich continued to use metal and glass vessels, while the poor probably adopted leather or wooden ones.
In its death throes, the Empire saw three usurpers attempt to claim the imperial throne in AD 406, all with support from Britannia. In AD 407 more troops were withdrawn from Britannia to try and prop up Rome in Europe, it left the province ill defended and terribly vulnerable to barbarian incursions. Sure enough, the attacks came and the province incurred great damage. Sick of it all, the Romano-Britons threw out the representatives of the latest usurper to the purple, Constantine III, and set about organizing their own defence.
They managed to send the
barbarians packing, but by now the writing was on the wall for anybody
with eyes to see. A Saxon incursion in 408 was apparently repelled by
the Britons. Despite that success, Roman Britain was dying and would soon
begin to pass into the
twilight of history.
By AD 450 the Saxon settlement was in full swing as more migrants arrived from the continent, and the old province of Britannia begun to buckle and fragment. The Saxons did not arrive as one massive invasion as is often supposed, rather the settlement began as a trickle and gathered exponential momentum in the sixth century. Indeed, Saxons may well have been settled in what is now East Anglia and south-east England prior to the official end of Roman Britain, employed as mercenaries in the Roman military machine.
The new arrivals rebelled, plunging the country into a series of wars that eventually led to the Saxon occupation of Lowland Britain by 600. Around this time many Britons fled to Brittany (hence its name), Galicia and probably Ireland.
the middle of the fifth century, there was still Romano-British
government of sorts in various parts of the province, and from this era
springs the legend of King Arthur and his Knights. Life went on in the
protected fort-based settlements along Hadrian’s Wall itself, such as
Vindolanda in Northumberland, but to all intents and purposes this was
year zero, a new beginning to a much more dangerous, less civilized and
far more turbulent age of darkness. The Battle of Deorham in 577
signified the death rattle of Roman Britain. After the battle, the
significant cities of Bath, Cirencester and Gloucester fell, and the
Saxons reached the western sea.
The Battle of Deorham in 577 signified the death rattle of Roman Britain. After the battle, the significant cities of Bath, Cirencester and Gloucester fell, and the Saxons reached the western sea.
The last Roman military units were removed from the province in the early years of the fifth century to defend Rome and the western empire - albeit the seat of what constituted Roman power was now situated in the more defensible city of Ravenna in northern Italy. Those experiencing events unfold in Britannia must have been full of dread and foreboding for the future, a future that looked bleak. They would have witnessed the weak flame of Romano-British civilization, and observed the final dying of the light, as it was violently snuffed out by the approaching storm of a new Germanic epoch.
Last desperate pleas
AD 410: the Empire is in turmoil; attacked from all sides, both internally and externally. Faced with invasion by a coalition of Picts and Saxons, the Roman citizens of Britain appeal to the Roman Emperor for help; but Honorius is in no position to aid them. Rome has just been sacked, the Goths are ravaging Italy and the western half of his empire, where Britain lies, has been supporting a pretender. Honorius drafts them a reply telling them that they must 'look to their own defenses'. With these words, Rome's official ties with Britain are lost.
In around AD 450 a last desperate plea for help - known to history as the 'Growns of the Britons' is sent to Agitius, generally identified as Aetius, military leader of the Western Roman Empire, who spent most of the 440s fighting insurgents in Gaul and Hispania.
The text of the plea in Latin is:
Agitio ter consuli, gemitus britannorum. [...] Repellunt barbari ad mare, repellit mare ad barbaros; inter haec duo genera funerum aut iugulamur aut mergimur.
The text in English is:
To Agitius, thrice consul: the groans of the Britons. [...] The barbarians drive us to the sea, the sea drives us to the barbarians; between these two means of death, we are either killed or drowned.
The Romans, however, could not assist them, and the Britons were left to their own devices. After nearly four hundred years, Britannia never left the Empire, the Empire left Britannia.
dawn of a new age
The incoming Saxon settlers did not massacre the local population of Romano-Britons, they simply became the dominant culture, and the subjugated local population adopted their language and customs as time went by. There is also some suggestion in the latest socio-archaeological research, that the Saxons were able to reproduce successfully at a far greater rate than the native population. This has yet to be proven but the genetics are pointing in that direction.
The Angles, Jutes and Saxons arrive in Britain
In the fifth century there was a more egalitarian society as the new settlers established themselves, for a while at least, but this of course changed. People farmed the land that had once formed part of the old Roman villa estates, whose wealthy Romano-British owners had long since packed up and disappeared, and provided for their families as best they could. Many hordes of valuables were also buried in the ground during this period. Some have been discovered, many more remain where they have been interred for centuries, waiting to be found.
country moved into the sixth century we see a distinct change in society happening.
Some of the migrant families became very successful and powerful; they
obtained more land and began to exert real influence over their
neighbours. They acquired military muscle and this in turn lead to them
demanding tribute from their weaker neighbours, and acknowledgement of
their more elevated social position. As with
all communities from then until now, power over others was exerted by fear and intimidation at the point of a
sword, aided and abetted by religion entwined within the apparatus of
As with all communities from then until now, power over others was exerted by fear and intimidation at the point of a sword, aided and abetted by religion entwined within the apparatus of the state.
©Copyright - James of Glencarr